Tri Hita Karana and Its Implementation

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Tri Hita Karana is a local value into a philosophy of life. In real terms, this concept developed and made in Bali, but did not realize it was eastern people lives of philosophy. However, there are two fundamental questions when talking about the Tri Hita Karana, they are:

1. What will happen to mankind if equilibrium is reached or when otherwise could not be realized? 

2. How is the application of that philosophy in the community in Bali?

Tri Hita Karana is basically a universal concept, sourced from a variety of Hindu sacred literature. This concept was later developed into a philosophy of life in the joints of Balinese life. In the Babad Bali mentioned that, the term Tri Hita Karana first appeared on November 11, 1966, but in practice this concept has become part of life in which the activity of Balinese life long before that year. Tri Hita Karana is defined as the three causes of goodness, the livelihoods, or the happiness that comes from three harmonious relationships between man and the Almighty God, between human beings, and between humans and nature and other living organisms (AAG Raka Dalem, 2007). By looking at the definition, it is clear that the balance of the relationship between man and God, among humans, and humans with the natural environment is a form of happiness and the livelihoods of the human race.

Harmonious relationship between man and God is the manifestation of the sacred relationship between man and God. The embodiments of this harmonious relationship done by creating a place of worship, worship, and do Yadnya. Harmonious relationships with God not merely as manifestation of belief but also as form of gratitude to all the grace that has been given. Thus, we will always feel peaceful and happy in life with a variety of activities in his drawing this.

Harmonious relationship with fellow human beings is a manifestation of the human need for social interaction is good to ease the process of human life itself. The complexity of harmonious relation between the members has very large dimensions and depth. The form of this relationship is not only limited to establishing a good relationship among humans, but much more than that. Harmonious relationship among humans is manifested in a variety of activities in the joints of social life and social good of the smallest sphere (family) to a very large scope (national and state). Good ethical, mutual understanding and tolerance, accept any difference as a whole, mutual assistance, and even a form of communicating ethical way to establish a harmonious relationship among humans.

Harmonious relationship between man and his environment is a manifestation of the human need to get a good treatment of the environment (clean environment, clean water, clean air, the environment provides a variety of resources, including the safe environment of a disaster). To get a balance, what is gained must be balanced with what is done. So to get a good treatment of nature, human nature must treat well too. Environments are appropriately considered as a resource that can be utilized to make ends meet. However, the environment / nature also have its limitations. So the use of the environment / nature has its limitations should not be exceeded. Form a harmonious relationship between humans and the environment is not utilize / exploit nature in excess, preserving the environment which has a vital role and function for the balance of nature (protected areas and conservation), keep the good parts of the environment and the role that serves small to vital to life.

What would happen if a balance is reached in the third relationship?

By looking at the definition of Tri Hita Karana, clearly can be interpreted that the happiness, the livelihoods and goodness gained by achieving a balance in the relationship with God, with others and with the environment. Harmonious relationship with the Lord, will provide inner happiness through gratitude. Harmonious relationship between human beings and the livelihoods will give happiness, because of course the harmonious relationship between human beings there will be no social conflict, etc. Then harmonious relationships would be more complete sense of happiness and the livelihoods that, because of the harmonious relationship with the environment, we would be treated well by nature as to get clean air, clean water, a clean and beautiful environment, etc.

What would happen if the balance was not achieved?

If the balance is not achieved, then the happiness will not be complete. Harmonious relationship with God, without the harmonious relationship with the environment is not going to make us get good treatment of the environment. So there are other important parts that we did not earn.

Tri Hita Karana concept is gaining in popularity and become a Hindu icon in arranging the joints of people's lives since the past few decades, there is already exist since the Hindu civilization. In fact, in the days of the Majapahit Tri Hita Karana has become one of the pillars of the eighteen secrets of success of the archipelago Gajah Mada leader at that time. Gajah Mada teachings include the concept of Tri Hita discourse to be followed by the leaders of Majapahit to reach his goal to unite the archipelago. The concept of Tri Hita discourse formulated by Gajah Mada, now grown and on their own Bali is known as Tri Hita Karana is a doctrine of harmony and balance in managing to remains Hindus especially in Bali (Suhardana, 2008: 77) .

The three causes of happiness are then translated into the human relationship with God, relationships with fellow human beings, and the human relationship with the environment. Furthermore, the third harmonic relationship is believed to bring happiness in this life, in which the Hindu community terminalogi realized in three elements, namely: parahyangan, pawongan, and palemahan.

  • Parahyangan a mecca every man for himself closer to the Creator, which is realized in the form of the holy places, worship, and yadnya. 
  • Pawongan is a reflection of that man cannot live alone without together with other human beings (as social beings). 
  • While palemahan is a form of human consciousness that humans live and thrive in nature, even a part of nature itself.

Application of Tri Hita Karana by Balinese people has actually been implemented on any joints of their lives. Even before the concept was invented, they've run this concept as a philosophy of life (living filosophy) that must be done. Even before the Majapahit go to Bali this concept is embedded in the joints of Balinese life. Before Majapahit went to Bali, Balinese people are familiar Subak system, which means that the concept of Tri Hita Karana is embedded in every activity of their lives. When viewed more broadly and deeply, Tri Hita Karana is a philosophy of life that is very universal and inherent in every human activity itself. Man's relationship with man, for example, is a harmonious relationship between man and man is not limited to establishing a good relationship between fellow human being, but much more in relation to how it is formed in relation to any interaction between man and man, how every human being with other human ethical, how human respect other human, how humans treat other humans, how human work together, and so on. So clear how the Tri Hita Karana is not just a simple concept, but it has become a philosophy of life to achieve peace and livelihoods of Life.

The rapid development of Bali island is like a coin which always has two different sides. On one side of this development have a positive impact on the economic livelihoods of the people of Bali, but on the other hand actually occurred degradation values of Tri Hita Karana. The development of the tourism sector, for example, has shifted the harmonious relationship between humans and the environment. Economic factors have become the most dominant part in public life and shifting environmental values and humanity. Not only the actual tourism sector, a variety of other activities that are always associated with economic interests have undermined the values of Tri Hita Karana of Balinese in the public mindset.

Damage to protected forests (which serves vital to provide protection against other regions and to maintain the balance of nature) in the Bali Barat National Park, land conversion and conservation of protected areas into cultivation area almost in every district, mining (excavation C) occurring large-magnitude in Kintamani and Karangasem, polluted rivers and lakes, erosion and landslides is evidence of how man began to forget how to create a harmonious relationship with the environment. So the environment / nature will do the balance with rainfall patterns begin to irregular, water crisis, floods and landslides, drought etc.

Social conflict is not even a lot less than the damage to the environment / nature happens. Man's relationship with humans has begun to lose harmonious, interest groups already relieving tolerant and respectful in the joints of Balinese life. Setra fight conflicts occur in various places in Bali, conflicts between organizations, Pekraman inter-village conflicts, etc. is evidence of the Balinese people have started to lose the values of Tri Hita Karana in harmonious relationships with fellow human beings.

Even man's relationship with God has begun to reveal disharmony. The sanctity of the relationship between man and God had not considered as a source of happiness. Theft pretima who recently indicated that a lot happens, instruments Godhead has not appreciated and forgotten.

However, the above does not show indications of degradation of the value of Tri Hita Karana Bali on society in general. The values of Tri Hita Karana is still widely implemented in various joints Balinese life. Penglipuran for example, the values of Tri Hita Karana is still held up as a living filosophy that must be implemented to achieve the livelihoods. Harmonious relationship with God, with fellow human beings, and the environment is well maintained. Implementation of the concept of Tri Hita Karana is then used as a concept urniversal for various interests and purposes. Local wisdom is then adopted in a variety of spatial planning, sectoral planning, and even the concept of tourism management, to create balance, harmony and alignment. Development of tourist villages, for example, Tri Hita Karana should be an important part in it not only as a concept of sustainable tourism, but also reinforce the Tri Hita Karana philosophy of life as people who are in it.

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